*This page was last updated April 16, 2020 at 10:37AM*
Hello McMaster Researchers,
This FAQ contains important information about MREB research ethics review procedures and requirements during the disruption caused by COVID-19. The first set of questions refer to the ethics review process, while the second set of questions provide direction on ethical considerations for conducting research remotely during COVID-19. This FAQ provides some guidance on the use of online video-conferencing for data collection, and additional guidance, in conjunction with IT Security and the Office of the VP Research, is available at https://research.mcmaster.ca/videoconferencing/.
For updated information on McMaster University’s response to COVID-19 visit https://covid19.mcmaster.ca/. Please contact the MREB Secretariat (ethics office) with any questions about ethics review during this disruption – firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ethics Review Process
Q. Is MREB operating as usual?
A. The MREB ethics office on campus is closed and in-person support will not be provided. The ethics office staff are working remotely and will continue to respond to your questions by email and are able to meet with you by phone. Review of new applications and other forms will continue as usual.
Q. What if I need to change study procedures due to COVID-19 and/or social distancing requirements?
A. McMaster’s directive is to cease all face-to-face research (with limited exceptions), which may also affect other parts of your approved protocol, such as how team members are accessing study data. See the Research FAQs for COVID-19 for full details. Should you need to change your recruitment, data collection, informed consent, data security, or other study procedures, please submit an Amendment form for review. The change must be reviewed by MREB before implementation (TCPS2, Art. 6.16). The MREB Chairs will prioritize review of amendments for studies requiring changes due to COVID-19.
Examples of changes that could require an Amendment include:
- Poster or in-person recruitment to email/social media recruitment
- In-person interviews to telephone or online interviews
- In-person/lab-based studies to online studies
- Focus groups held in-person to an online or teleconference format • Written Consent to Oral Consent documented on an Oral Consent Log
- Changes to incentives or how they will be given to participants
If you need to make changes to a recently submitted application that is still in the review process, please send an email to email@example.com and we can advise you on how to proceed depending on where it is in the process.
Q. What if I am only changing the study dates due to COVID-19 or making a similar minor administrative change?
A. If you are only delaying your study or making another minor change that does not substantively change the protocol or documents, then you could submit a For Information Only form instead of an Amendment. This form is used to update the file with new information that does not require REB review. If you are unsure if your change can be submitted via a For Information Only form, please contact the ethics office at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Q. What if I need to modify the study procedures immediately in order to protect participants from COVID-19 transmission?
A. The TCPS2 does allow an exception where a change is necessary to eliminate an immediate risk to participants and there is no time for an amendment review (TCPS2, Art. 6.15). Such changes may be implemented but must be reported to the REB at the earliest opportunity (ideally within 5 business days). To report this type of protocol deviation to MREB use the Reportable Event form (a sub-form within MacREM, accessed the same way as an Amendment or Annual Report).
Q. What if I have COVID-19 related research that is time sensitive and requires MREB approval?
A. Please contact email@example.com at the time of submission to inform us of the need for a prioritized review. The ethics office staff will make every effort to find reviewers who can do a timely review of the protocol and the MREB Chairs will prioritize the application when providing MREB feedback.
Q. Are there any other actions I should take due to COVID-19 and the social distancing guidelines?
Ethical Considerations for Remote Research
Q. How should I handle recruitment of participants during the COVID-19 restrictions?
A. Use forms of recruitment that can be accessed from a distance, e.g. online posters, social media, email and telephone. In the ethics application, be prepared to describe how you will gain access to email addresses and phone numbers.
Q. I was planning on giving participants their incentive in person, what should I do now?
A. As giving incentives in-person is currently not an option, consider other ways to provide incentives while trying to minimize the amount of identifiable information being collected. The best options are sending electronic gift cards or e-transfer of money. Mail is another option, but requires the collection and storage of full mailing address and in some studies with high social risk would not be recommended (e.g. the incentive arriving in the mail could alert someone else in the household that the participant was in the study).
Q. If I cannot get in-person written consent, how should consent be obtained and documented?
A. Written consent is not recommended for conducting research remotely. Asking participants to print, sign, scan and email back signed consent forms is not only not possible for all participants but adds to participant burden. If signed consent is essential for your project then there could be alternatives such as using mail, e-signatures, or having the participant take a photo of the signed consent form (if printer, but no scanner). However, the recommended alternative is an oral consent process, which is easier for both participants and the researcher.
For oral consent, whenever possible, send a Letter of Information (signature lines removed) ahead of the interview or focus group, and follow up to obtain consent using an Oral Consent Script and document consent on an Oral Consent Log. Use of an Oral Consent Script assumes the participant has had the opportunity to read through the Letter of Information. It allows the researcher to cover the key ethics information at the time of oral consent without having to read the full Letter of Information aloud. In some study contexts or with specific participant groups, working through the full Letter of Information as part of the oral consent process may be preferable to ensure informed consent.
Online surveys or experiments, where the participant follows a link to the Letter of Information/Consent Preamble and the survey/experiment, should continue to obtain consent as before, with participants selecting a “yes” consent button to continue to the data collection or a “no” button to leave the study.
Q. What are the recommended practices for recording online interviews and focus groups?
A. Moving from in-person interviews and focus groups to phone or online may seem like an easy transition, however, there are several things to consider when completing the ethics application.
- Making the Recording: The most secure way to audio record interviews/focus groups is to record to your computer or device using an application that directly records the audio to your hard drive. Another option is to record through the online meeting platform (e.g. Zoom) directly to your computer, but most of these platforms only allow for recording video and audio together, not audio separately. Additionally, you will need to confirm that the platform you are using can record directly to your computer as opposed to the platform’s server or to a cloud service. Where recordings must be saved to a cloud, they should be downloaded to local storage and deleted from the cloud immediately. As soon as the interview/focus group is finished, the file should be saved to a password protected storage device, e.g. computer, external hard drive, and encrypted. Details about recording and data security information should be included in the Letter of Information. A clear consent statement needs to be included on the Oral Consent Script if audio (and video) recording.
- Video Recording: Online platforms make it easy to video record a meeting. Video recording should not be used unless it is essential for your research methodology and clearly justified. Sometimes it is only possible to record video and audio together through the platform and you would need to use a separate application to record audio only. If you do need a video recording, due to methodology or limitations on using a separate application to record audio, then the fact the session will be video recorded needs to be stated in the Letter of Information and a clear consent statement needs to be included on the Oral Consent Script or Consent Form. Most interviews/focus groups will not need video recording and in those cases the Letter of Information should inform participants that the interview/focus group will be audio recorded only and not video recorded.
- Attendance: Consider whether participants can choose to join the interview/focus group by audio only, given not all participants may have access to video and there may be limitations to the location from which a participant can join during this time of social distancing. Additionally, in a focus group setting, joining by audio only increases the confidentiality of participation (in conjunction with using a pseudonym) for more sensitive data collection. If joining a session by audio only is not an option, this should be clear in the Recruitment and the Consent materials.
Q. What steps do I need to take to protect participant confidentiality and data when conducting phone and online interviews/focus groups?
A. The following should be considered and addressed in your ethics application if applicable.
- High Risk Studies: If you will be collecting highly sensitive data and/or there is a significant social risk for participants if their data was disclosed or it was known they participated in your study, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org for advice on how to proceed. Most of the available online services or a standard phone connection are appropriate for low to moderate risk studies, but higher risk studies may need a more secure option.
- Participant Recording of Focus Groups: Any participant could covertly record an in-person focus group if they were so inclined. However, it is even easier to make a good recording of an online focus group without other participants or the researcher knowing, and it could include video. In the section of the Focus Group Guide where you discuss confidentiality with participants, include a statement requesting participants not record the session. Additionally, this risk to participant privacy should be clearly stated in the Letter of Information along with a reminder that researchers cannot guarantee that all participants will refrain from recording the session. For more sensitive data, one-on-one interviews may be preferable to a focus group.
- Recording and Storing Interviews: See the “Making the Recording” section in the answer to the question on recording online interviews (above).
- Keeping Focus Group and Interview Sessions Private: Before using online platforms for interviews or focus groups, researchers should become familiar with the settings and invitation options and take steps to prevent unauthorized persons from accessing the session (e.g. “Zoom bombing”). Most of the time, unauthorized access is due to the meeting link being made public, which should be less of an issue for research as the link should only be shared privately with participants. But participants could accidentally disclose the link, and therefore researchers should be aware of other options to prevent access (e.g. two factor authentication) and to address the situation if someone gains access to a focus group (e.g. have screen sharing turned off, know how to remove someone, etc.). For those using Zoom, there is a guide to preventing unauthorized access posted by the company.
Q. Does McMaster University have any official guidance on the use of online meeting/voice calling platforms?
A. Currently, Information Technology has posted a guide to best practices for privacy and security when using Zoom video conferencing. There is also a guide to creating a secure work-from-home environment, which could be useful for researchers having to switch to handling data at home that they would normally only work with on campus. MREB, IT Security and the Office of the VP Research have developed guidance on using video-conferencing platforms to collect data for research. In addition to McMaster guidance, the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada has posted privacy tips for using video-conferencing services.
Please contact the MREB ethics office if you have any questions about the above or have a question not covered in this FAQ – email@example.com.